The dimensions and components of cognitive apprenticeship in ChANgE Chem (Collins, 2006).

Dimension Component
Description Design Elements
Content Types of knowledge required for expertise
Domain Knowledge Subject matter specific concepts, facts, procedures Use socioscientific issues
Heuristics General techniques for completing tasks Use Workplace problems
Learning and Control Strategies General approaches for directing one’s solution; Knowledge about how to learn new material Emphasize storytelling
Method Ways to promote the development of expertise
Modeling Instructor performs a task so students can observe Use Model-Eliciting Activities
Coaching Instructor facilitates while students perform Use deep learning approaches
Scaffolding Instructor provides supports to help student perform Scaffold, fade, collaborate
Articulation Instructor encourages students to verbalize Use deep learning approaches
Reflection Students compare, self-monitor, reflect Self-regulated learning
Exploration Students pose and solve their own problems. Learning cycle
Sequencing Keys to ordering activities
Increasing Complexity Meaningful tasks gradually increasing in difficulty Scaffold, fade, collaborate
Increasing Diversity Practice in a variety of situations Computer simulations
Global to Local Skills Focus on conceptualizing the whole task first Context to atoms
Sociology Social characteristics of learning environments
Situated Learning Students learn in the context of realistic tasks Emphasize ethics and social impact
Community of Practice Communication about ways to accomplish tasks Use deep learning approaches
Intrinsic Motivation Students set personal goals Self-regulated learning
Cooperation Students work together to accomplish their goals Use collaborative problem solving


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