Spillman, C. M., Imperial, L., & Crippen, K. J. (2020). Perception and experience of in-sequence and out-of-sequence engineering students in a general chemistry laboratory. UF Journal of Undergraduate Research, 21(2), 1–12. doi:10.32473/ufjur.v21i2.108496


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Open Ed

K12 Science Online - Laboratory Activities Study

Research Questions

  1. What is the type and frequency of laboratory activities used by online K12 science teachers?
  2. What does the nature and frequency of use of these activities indicate about the use of inquiry-based instruction in K12 online science environments?
    • Are these experiments and their delivery consistent with the goals, guidelines, and vision of NACOL and America's Lab Report?
    • Are these types of activities delivered in such a way as to support meaningful learning and the NSES vision of scientific inquiry?
    • What barriers exist to the use of inquiry-based practices that are unique to online environments?
  3. What elements most influence teacher decisions regarding the use of laboratory activities in K12 online science teaching?


A sample of respondents to a national survey of K12 online teachers who self-reported as teaching science.

Conference Presentations

Crippen, K. J., Archambault, L. M., & Kern, C. (3/22/2010). Examining the Use of Laboratory Activities in Secondary Science Online. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching (NARST) Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.

Journal Publications

Crippen, K. J., Archambault, L. M., & Kern, C. L. (Online First). The nature of laboratory learning experiences in secondary science online. Research in Science Education. doi: 10.1007/s11165-012-9301-6