Kern, C. L., & Crippen, K. J. (2017). The Effect of Scaffolding Strategies for Inscriptions and Argumentation in a Science Cyberlearning Environment. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 26(1), 33-43. doi:10.1007/s10956-016-9649-x


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TPACK Instrument

Archambault, L. M., & Crippen, K. J. (2009). Examining TPACK Among K-12 Online Distance Educators in the United States. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education: General 9(1).


A survey instrument was used to measure the elements of the TPACK framework.